In this article we shall understand about the total personality of a building.
Before we start exploring the various components of a building, we need to understand the basic distinction between
Framed structures and Load bearing construction.
Framed structures are those buildings where the load from the slab is transferred to beam which transfer the loads to columns which in turn transfer the entire load to the foundation below. The foundation could be Open foundation or Pile foundation.The walls do not carry or transfer the load of the slab or beams.
That way ,the only purpose of having walls is to create a privacy and create a buffer between the external and internal environments. Removal or modification of these walls is relatively easy in framed structures and it does not normally affect the overall load distribution of the building.
Load bearing construction , on the other hand is that building where the load of the slab is directly transferred to the walls which transfer the load to the wall foundation .Wall foundation is a continuous strip of foundation built in either stone masonry or brick masonry.Since the walls are carrying the loads from above, it is not easy to modify or remove the walls from a Load bearing construction. This type of construction is quite vulnerable in case of earthquakes.
In this article we shall only be discussing the Framed structures.
For our understanding, we divide the Framed building in two main sections.
2.Above the Plinthwhichcanbecalledassuperstructure.
Now let’s see What is meant by Plinth.
It is the floor level at the ground floor.This is kept at a higher level than the front road.
Basic purpose of such a height is that the surface water from the adjoining roads should not enter the building.
If the Plinth is higher than the road level ,then the chances of the various reptiles,rodents, dust ,garbage entering the building are also reduced.
So now having understood the concept behind Plinth,
let us see what parts of the building are hidden below Plinth ?
Foundation: It could be Open foundations or Pile foundations.
Plinth beams : Beams tying the columns at plinth level
Ground Beams: Beams tying the columns at ground level
Tie Beams: Beams tying the foundations at foundation level .These are used in case of earthquake resistant buildings and are used only if Open foundations are used.
Basements: Every building may not have a basement. A basement is an use-able area below the plinth level which can be used for a Non-residential purpose only such as Storage, Offices, Shops or for housing facilities such as water treatment plants etc.
Septic tank : A facility which converts the organic sewage into inorganic stable matters through the interaction of the anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria can only thrive in the absence of air .
Underground water tank : Storage of water below the plinth level. This could be used for drinking purpose , general use or for the fire- fighting applications.
Columns below Plinth: That portion of the column which starts from the footing and reaches the plinth level .
Masonry below the Plinth : This is done on the periphery of the building.
Basic purpose is to retain the Plinth filling .
Plinth Filling : Comprises of murrum, soling ,PCC and flooring
Drainage lines : Which connects the outlet of the toilets to the septic tank via a grid of Gully Traps & Chambers & Manholes.