Throw the stone…carefully.

Overview:

In our detailing of a building we have already discussed the RCC elements in a building.

From previous post we are reviewing the masonry work.( Read: Laying bricks for building success)
This article takes the reader to the next level :Understanding Stone masonry.

LOOK AT THE OLD STONE ARCH BRIDGE
LOOK AT THE OLD STONE ARCH BRIDGE

The Stone Masonry:

Everyone likes the aesthetics and the grace of the stone walls. The sturdy facade which a stone wall creates is incomparable to any other form .Stone masonry uses the natural stones and hence may be we move forward towards the direction of the nature or may be, the stone wall reminds us of our forgotten past when we used to live inside the stone caves.

LOOK AT ANOTHER  BEAUTIFUL  STONE ARCH AND STONE MASONRY          [ CR ]USED IN A RELIGIOUS BUILDING
LOOK AT ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL STONE ARCH AND STONE MASONRY [ CR ]USED IN A RELIGIOUS BUILDING

Different styles:
There are 4 distinct methods in stone masonry depending on whether the stone [ which is also called  as Rubble]  has been dressed ( shaped) or is used as it is ( no shape given after breaking in quarry)

A.With dressed stones:
1.Ashlar masonry
2.Coursed Rubble masonry( CR)

Ashlar is more refined as compared to coursed rubble masonry. Ashlar has greater dimensional control and is more appealing from aesthetics point of view.
Both are normally used for monumental works or public buildings.

Why ashlar or coursed rubble masonry are not suitable for modern buildings ?

1.Skilled masons to dress the stone are not available.
2.Productivity is quite less.
3.Dead weight of walls is much higher

In short when cost constraints are not there , adequate time is available and most important, magnificent looks are important directly  go for Ashlar or UCR masonry.

B.With Undressed stones:

3. Un-Coursed Rubble masonry ( UCR)
4.Random rubble masonry ( RRM)

Both of these use the stone as it is. The stone are quarried and further broken in medium size from 9″ to 12″ . the joining is done in cement mortar CM ( 1:6 ).
A cross stone called as Header is provided across the wall to give a binding on the wall width .
Some times RCC precast headers can also be given. There is also a practice of keeping reinforcement bars across the width .

There is not much difference between UCR and RRM  . However, note the following:
1.UCR is better in overall appearance than RRM and hence as a convention it is used for walls above the plinth .
2.RRM is used for wall foundations or retaining walls since the looks are not important.

UN-COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY IN THE COMPOUND WALL.
UN-COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY IN THE COMPOUND WALL.
RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY USED IN THE COMPOUND WALL . [ REAR PORTION ]
RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY USED IN THE COMPOUND WALL .
[ REAR PORTION ]
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