Why is shear calculated at a distance d and d/2 in the case of footing?

Answer by Rakshita Nagayach:

Case I :  One way Shear

In this case, the dispersion angle of load is 45° as shown. According to IS 456:2000, 'the critical section for this condition shall be assumed as a vertical section located from the face of the column,pedestal or wall at a distance equal to the effective depth (d) of footing for footings on piles.'

X-X is the Critical Section.

Case II: Two way Shear

If footing depth is less, the column may punch through the footing. For this tendency, IS 456:2000 recommends that critical section is at a distance d/2 from the column face.

Hope this helps! Sorry for the low quality pictures.
Thanks for the A2A Devendra Sahu.

Why is shear calculated at a distance d and d/2 in the case of footing?

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