What are the stages of construction ?

Background :

Each new person coming to the construction field has a basic curiosity as to the exact sequence of activities at the site. This article explains the various stages in the construction of a residential building.

Assumptions :

This is a RCC framed structure with isolated column footings, there is no basement. ground + 4 floors ,

The RCC structure in this case , comprises of the following elements:

  • Open Foundations [ Stepped Footings ]
  • Columns
  • Plinth beams
  • Roof beams
  • Lintels / chajjah
  • Band beams [Patli ]
  • Stair case with RCC pardi
  • Lift room/ Lift duct/ Lift pit
  • Overhead water tank

Construction sequence :
Part 01 :  Land acquisition : This is excluded from the present discussion.

Part 02 :    Mobilization : This is the preliminary activity at site which is carried out by the main contractor . The water connection & electrical connections are obtained by the clients. The construction materials are purchased by the clients or contractor depending on the type of agreement .

Mobilization includes the following main categories:

  • Approach roads
  • Boundary wall/fencing
  • Cement godown
  • Electrical connection/ Generator set
  • Water storage tank
  • Site office
  • Stores room
  • Lighting for the site & roads
  • Labour hutments
  • Local Liaisoning

Part 03.  : From line out to the ground floor columns

  1. Line out
  2. Excavation for footings :

It can be done either manually or with excavator.

The material is shifted either within site or to other location depending on whether the excavated material can be used in the back filling for pits/plinth.

  1. Levelling course [ PCC ] : In specific cases, if the foundation strata has many ups & downs, stone soling is done so as to reduce the excessive thickness of PCC.
  2. Reinforcement of footings / columns
  3. Backfilling in the column pits : If the excavated material is good murrum , it can be reused in the pits for back filling . Otherwise, hard murrum has to be bought .

After back filling , compaction with manual rammer or earth compactor is done followed by the watering / flooding of the filled up portion for proper consolidation.

  1. Plinth beams : If there is black cotton soil on the site , then the beam bottom are normally done with laying bricks on edge . In specific cases, beam bottoms are used.
  2. Compacted murrum in the plinth : If the excavated material is good murrum , it can be reused in the pits for back filling . Otherwise, hard murrum has to be bought .

 

  1. PCC at plinth level : In case of black cotton soil , there is always a risk of plinth settling down. Therefore, at such site , it is preferable to put some nominal reinforcement in the PCC below flooring /paving at the ground floor.
  2. Column shuttering for first lift
  3. Columns casting

Part 04 :  The intricacies and steps in casting the roof slab.

Please refer to the article :

Yeah..the Slab is finally cast

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