Footings : Levelling Course & Water Logging :

Dear Friends ,

Let us solve the query of one of the readers today.

This is the query :


In fact , there are two queries here :

  1. When do we use Plain Concrete in a footing ?
  2. Ground Water seepage during excavation ?

Let us solve these queries one by one.

First query is about the Plain cement Concrete .

Please have a look at the section of the Footing as given in the RCC drawing :

The PCC is marked here with Red :


Now have a look at the base of a pit . This is how the surface shall be at the base of the excavation :


It shall be very clumsy to lay the rebars on such a muddy surface. Right ? Thats why we provide a certain thickness of plain cement concrete here . This concrete is also known as the ” LEVELLING COURSE “.

So the Levelling course is a layer of Plain cement concrete which is given so that we get a good working surface for laying the footing properly. 

Now have a look at the leveling course laid on a site :


Next step is to lay the Rebars of the Footings :


Parallely , the shuttering for the footing is also fixed on the Levelling course.


Now we do casting of the Footing so that it becomes the RCC footing .


Hope the first query is clarified.

Now second query pertains to the Water logging during excavation.

You can have a condition like this on the site :


So what do we do in such a case ?


We have dewatering pumps and take out the water before laying the Levelling course :


There might be a case like this also :


So now , may be we shall have to wait for a dry spell so that this water either gets absorbed in the soil below or is evaporated.

In a situation , when the excavated pit is not completely dried, it shall not be possible to lay the plain cement concrete in the mud.

What do we do then ?

In such a case , we shall have to do Boulder solling so that we get a good ,

solid working surface .

Look at the stake of Boulders which are also known as Rubble or Stone :


These boulders , when laid in the base of a pit , shall look like this :


After this , the levelling course is laid in plain cement concrete. This is followed by the RCC footing.

Hope both the queries are clarified now.

Thank you for asking the queries .

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Rate Analysis for Gypsum Board Partition

Good Afternoon Readers ,

You shall find an interesting  post here.

So far we have been dealing with the Rate analysis for the RCC , Concrete , Brick work and other such items from a construction site.Correct ?

You can refer to the following link:

Rate Analysis for Brick work 

Today ,we shall address a different item.

What is a complete Item Rate ?

Let us assume that you have been given the BOQ [ Bill of Quantities ]with several items which you need to execute at the site. Before execution , you need to submit the rates for the individual items .This is known as Complete Item rate.

In context of a Construction tender , a completed item rate is the rate at which you are going to offer to complete the work.

The completed item rate , therefore , has the following components :

  1. Material cost including the Base rate , Loading , unloading charges, Transportation , Storage etc. You shall also have to add the probable wastage that might take place during handling, storage , local conveyance and during the execution.
  2. Labour cost .This shall depend on the skills . degree of specialization needed to execute the work etc. In specific items , the tender might refer to proprietary items . [ What is a Proprietary item ?  ] . In such case , it shall be required to get the quote from the qualified Applicators. Usually , there shall be approved agencies who are qualified by the Manufacturer for application of their products at site.
  3. To the subheads 1 & 2 , you shall have to add the following :
    1.  Supervision
    2. Administration
    3. Tools and Plants
    4. Overheads
    5. Contractor’s profit
    6. TDS
  4. Such addition of 1, 2 & 3 shall give you what is known as the Complete item rate for that item.

In this context , now let us see one real life example .


Suppose you have been given a BOQ as follows and you are asked to do the rate analysis for the individual items .


Let us sample the first item for discussion here :


Now . what is the next step ?







In this case , the BOQ has specified the India Gypsum as the Approved Product / manufacturer.Therefore , it is necessary that you visit the web site as following link :

India Gypsum 

Henceforth , you need to take the following steps :

  1. Visit the Web page
  2. Contact if there are local dealers/ stockists of the specified product.
  3. Obtain a price list 
  4. Find out if Approved Applicators are available
  5. Obtain a quote from the Applicators 
  6. Arrive at the Complete item rate as explained in the first paragraph of this post.
  7. Repeat identical steps for each of the item in the BOQ. 

It is suggested that the actual calculations for the rate Analysis are carried out in the MS Excel . This shall help you when doing some corrections in the tabulation or when you have do identical calculations for the next item. 

In case you would like to learn the science of doing the Rate analysis in a methodical way , do contact me using this form here :

Why Online course ?

Dear Friends ,

You are in touch with the posts on this blog and hence you must be quite aware that we are offering On Line courses for Civil Engineers ?

You must have already read this article :

Get ready for a Pay Hike  

Various courses are offered :

have a look here :

CATALOGUE.OLC.17.03.17. (1)

You might be wondering what are the advantages of this Online Course ?

  1. It saves time commuting to & fro the real Class room .
  2. The course is attended directly from your hand set.
  3. You can complete  the assignments just in the routine time.
  4. Cost is negligible as compared to the conventional classes.
  5. You can be up to date on the technical front through this class.
  6. You can continuously upgrade yourselves while on the go.

Quite recently , we have launched this focussed On line Course :


Please allow me to share a few mails here :



You can get further information about this  Online Course through this form :

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What is Bar Bending Schedule ?

Hello Friends ,

The Blog has recently achieved a status of having 850 Followers .

Various Initiatives are regularly planned for the engagement and enlightment of the readers.

One such initiative is ” On Line courses for Civil Engineers ” which have been commenced from Sept 2016.

Many students have benefitted through the Basic Module for construction .

” The On line courses “ is an appropriate medium for learning new concepts or for honing the skills without disturbing the routine activities .

Now presenting the On line course on “BAR BENDING SCHEDULE ” which was requested by many students for some time.
This article explains the course Objectives and other details you would like to know.

Hope you get registered for this course by 15th April 2017 .

Course begins from 20th April 2017.

All the best !










You can also directly apply through this form below :



You are appointed if you solve these simple questions….

Dear Friends ,

Good afternoon.

Presenting you some interesting problems from the site.

Try to solve these questions as if these have been posed to you during a written test or have been asked by the interviewer. Believe me , these type of sums usually decide the fate of your selection for a job. They appear so simple on the surface that you tend to loose your focus from them. Then subsequently you realize that you have committed some very silly error during solving .

Practice ..Practice and Practice is the only mantra that can be given for the success.

So , as usual , first try to solve them all by yourselves.

When you think you have found the answers , move slightly below the question and find the answers.

Best of luck.!

Ready ?

Set ..Go….













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Many students are getting benefitted with the On line Course for Civil Engineers.

These are effective courses which cater to your exact needs .

Contact Today with your exact needs.


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