You don’t like the AAC  blocks ? 

Overview:

During the previous posts , we had a review of the brick masonry ,stone masonry and then also went on to enjoy some basic estimation in brick work.

While speaking of masonry , the name of AAC blocks invariably comes in the picture .Some people also

The C4X blocks were invented in Sweden in the year 1920 and then extensively used in European countries till recent years. For Asian countries, the phase has just begun and we are  witnessing a rapid replacement of the traditional red clay bricks to the  AAC blocks.

This article explains  the pros and cons of using AAC blocks in your next project.

The blocks in brief:
Material:
The auto-claved aerated concrete blocks are made from Quartz sand, calcinated  gypsum, lime, and/or cement, aluminium powder and water , fly ash and ferrous oxide. Or to simplify , the composition is Cement, Fly Ash Sand & Aeration Compound
Sizes:
Normal dimensions are:
Length: 625 mm. Height: 240 mm.
Thickness: 50 mm. ,75 mm. ,100 mm.,150 mm. , 200 mm. & 300 mm.

Which size to use ?

Many combinations can be worked out depending on specific needs.

Normally, the external walls are made with 150 mm thick blocks whereas for internal walls ,100 mm thick blocks are used. the architectural features such as fins or Cavity walls are made with 50 mm or 75 mm thick walls.

What are the basic advantages ?

1.Light weight :
The  micro structure is porous which makes it lighter (600 Kg/CuM) than the red clay bricks ( 1900 Kg/CuM) and much lighter than conventional concrete ( 2500 Kg/CuM) which directly implies :

1.1 Reduced dead loads due to masonry on beams ,columns and footings. This results in lowered RCC sizes and hence reduced costing.

1.2. For masons the handling is easier .

1.3 Due to its larger size, no of blocks to be handled per CuM of AAC masonry is much smaller than Brick work. [ Only 67 AAC blocks of size 625 mm x 240 mm x 200 mm are needed for 1 CuM whereas for same volume of brick masonry , the mason has to handle 514 bricks.]

2.Conserves environment:
It does not need the clay and hence the fertile soil from the green fields is not wasted.
3.Better properties:
3.1.Sound insulation
3.2.Thermal efficiency
3.3. Lesser piece to piece variation

lower environmental impact as:

Improved thermal efficiency reduces the heating and cooling load in buildings.
Resource efficiency
Light weight saves cost & energy in transportation, labor expenses, and increases chances of survival during seismic activity.

4. Yes, it does reduce the RCC as well as steel sizes as its density is pretty lower as compared.  Requirement of mortar for laying AAC blocks is reduced due to less number of joints. Similarly material required for rendering is also lower due to dimensional accuracy of AAC.

Author’ s note :

Let me put on records my sincere appreciations for Ms.Rakshita who answered to my questions about AAC blocks .You can refer to the question and answer at this link .

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Why so many bricks ???

Dear Reader ,

In my experience , the subject of estimation is quite boring to the students as well as field people.

In that context , we are going through a series of articles devoted to the arithmetic involved in construction.

We have already discussed the estimation of materials in concrete

( Read post : Vow..what a concrete )

Now we shall travel in the masonry today.

Just keep your patience when you read.

If you get bored , just Stop and take a break.

IMG-20140213-WA0007

Take a scrap pad and a calculator and do some jugglery yourselves.

That’s how you shall keep aligned .

Re-continue and reflect as many times as you feel.

There is no hurry.

Happy Calculating !

Overview:

We talked about the general aspects of the masonry in the previous post.
We also spoke about  the stone masonry

( Read : Throw the stone..carefully )

Now we shall learn the arithmetic issues involved in counting the bricks.

We shall  be able to find out the :
Number of bricks needed for the masonry work and also the mortar needed for the job.
In other words ,for a given masonry wall we shall be able to compute:

1.No of bricks 

2.No of cement bags
3.Sand

And then we can also find out the total material cost.

This shall help us in:
1.Budgeting for materials
2.Ordering the material

Ok ? so all geared up ?
let us begin..here we go:

The Data:
The brick wall which we need to build is 5 m long, 4 m high and it is 200 mm thick.
It is to be jointed in Cement mortar 1:6.
The bricks of size 200 mm x100 mm x 70 mm have been approved.

CHECK THE ACTUAL DIMENSIONS OF THE BRICKS ON SITE
CHECK THE ACTUAL DIMENSIONS OF THE BRICKS ON SITE

The method:
1.Calculate the volume of one brick :
0.2m x 0.10m x 0.07m = 0.0014 CuM.
2.Find number of bricks per CuM:
= 1/0.0014 = 714 nos.

So 714 bricks shall be needed if there is no mortar joint. Right ?

3. Now,assume that there is a mortar joint of 10 mm thickness between the  bricks.

So, increase each dimension of brick by 10 mm.

Thus,the volume of each brick with mortar shall be :
0.21 x 0.110 x 0.08 =0.001848 CuM.

4..Again, Find number of bricks per CuM:

= 1/0.0011848  = 541 nos.

NORMALLY CEMENT MORTAR CM ( 1:6 ) IS USED FOR THE BRICK WORK
NORMALLY CEMENT MORTAR CM ( 1:6 ) IS USED FOR THE BRICK WORK

5.Thus, number of bricks have reduced from 714 to 541 due to the presence of mortar.

6.Therefore, 714 – 541 = 173 Bricks represent the volume of cement mortar.

173 x 0.0014= 0.2422 CuM.
7.Summary I:

We shall need 541 bricks and 0.24 CuM of cement mortar for 1 CuM of brick work.

TRAY FOR MIXING CEMENT MORTAR at the location of brickwork
TRAY FOR MIXING CEMENT MORTAR at the location of brickwork

8.Now we also need to find out how many cement bags and how much quantity of sand is needed 

for 0.24 CuM of mortar .

Let us assume that the mortar quantity is CuM.

The mix is CM 1:6.
We shall use dry mix method.

Cement: [1.52/(1+6)]x 28.8 =  [0.2171]x 28.8 = 6.25 Bags

Sand: [0.2171] x 6  = 1.302  CuM.

Consumption of materials for 1 CuM of cement mortar (1:6):

Cement: 6.25 Bags
Sand:   1.302 CuM.

A CEMENT BAG WEIGHS 50 KG AND HAS A VOLUME OF 35 LITRES.
A CEMENT BAG WEIGHS 50 KG AND HAS A VOLUME OF 35 LITRES.
Now ,we actually need only 0.24 CuM of mortar for 1 CuM of brick work

Hence for 0.24 CuM of mortar , we shall need :
Cement: 6.25 Bags x 0.24 =1.5 bags
Sand:   1.302 CuM. x 0.24= 0.3125 CuM.

IMG-20140819-WA0010

9.Summary II:
Consumption of materials for 1 CuM of Brickwork :
Cement: 1.5 bags
Sand:     0.3125 CuM.
Bricks: 541 Bricks

10.Now we are at the final lap:
Volume of brick wall:
5 x 4x 0.2 = 4 CuM

Therefore material consumption shall be:

Cement: 1.5 bags x 4 =  bags
Sand:     0.3125 CuM. x 4 = 1.25 CuM.
Bricks: 541 Bricks x 4 = 2164 Bricks

If the unit rates are known we can also find out total cost of the materials.

RCC FRAMED STRUCTURE. [ Brickwork in full swing ]
RCC FRAMED STRUCTURE.
[ Brickwork in full swing ]
11.Assume that :

Bricks : INR 4200 per 1000. [ INR 4.2  per no ]

Sand : INR 4500 per Brass or 100 Cft.

[ INR 45 per cft or 45 x 35.29 = INR 1588 per cuM.]

Cement : INR 300 per bag of 50 Kg.

The material cost shall be as follows :

Cement:  bags@ 300 =       1800
Sand:     1.25 CuM.@ 1588 = 1985
Bricks:  2164 Bricks@ 4.2 =  9088

Total cost :1800 + 1985 + 9088

= INR 12,873 

12. Now we can find out the materials cost per CuM  of  brick work :

12,873 /4 = INR 3218.25 per CuM of brick work 

or 3218.25/35.29 = INR 91.19 per Cubic feet of brick work

BRICKS STORED AT THE SITE
BRICKS STORED AT THE SITE

Author’s note :

Dear Reader ,

Hope you have understood the basics.

1.Remember , you don’t have to do all this calculation every .

Just memorize the unit cost i.e INR 3218.25 per CuM or INR 91.19 per Cubic feet of brick work .

As long as the material rates are the same, the cost shall be the same.

2. For those comfortable with spread sheets , once do this calculation in the spread sheet with proper formulae. Later , when any of the variable changes ,the moment you revise that figure, the entire computations shall be automatically revised.

SAK.PORTRAIT.27.8.2012

Its really a fun.

believe me.

Happy journey on the path of estimations.

Vow..what a concrete !

Dear Reader ,
In our journey into the mystery of a construction , we have so far covered concrete in the non-numerical aspects. Right ? Now let us also understand the mathematics involved .
This shall need a dedicated reading of this post.
For a new reader , it is suggested to please first  read the following posts for general understanding of the subject and then return to this page .
Remember :
To supervise the manpower at site certainly requires skills but if you can do quantity estimation, bills verification etc and also control manpower , your compensation shall rise in steep curve.
So, please don’t ever skip the calculations part while learning the construction. 
A CEMENT BAG WEIGHS 50 KG AND HAS A VOLUME OF 35 LITRES.
A CEMENT BAG WEIGHS 50 KG AND HAS A VOLUME OF 35 LITRES.
Volumetric batching of the concrete.

 
There are two distinct methods of proportioning the ingredients for concrete :
1. By the measuring box ( Hindi : Farma ):
2.By the buckets ( Hindi :  Ghamela ,Tagari  & Marathi :Pati,)
 
Both methods are in actual use at the construction sites where volumetric batching is followed.
Remember :
1.The RMC plants , however, do the batching of concrete based on the design mix and hence weigh batching is practiced.
2.Certain sites also practice the design mix at site and use weigh batching .
 
The discussion on S.nos 1 & 2 is excluded from the present post.
 
We are talking about  only those construction sites which manufacture the concrete at the site 
( In short : Nominal mix , Mixed at site & cast in situ concrete ) .
THIS KIND OF CONCRETE WE ARE TALKING IN THIS ARTICLE. NOMINAL MIX,  PROPORTIONED , MIXED &  PLACED AT SITE
THIS KIND OF CONCRETE WE ARE TALKING IN THIS ARTICLE.
NOMINAL MIX,
PROPORTIONED , MIXED & PLACED AT SITE
 
1. By the measuring box ( Hindi : Farma ):
the dimensions of A Standard measuring box : 12″ X 12″ x 15 “
THE MEASURING BOX  [ FARMA ] WHICH MEASURES 12" X12" X15 " OR 1.25 CFT.  OR 43.75 LITRES
THE MEASURING BOX
[ FARMA ] WHICH MEASURES 12″ X12″ X15 ” OR 1.25 CFT.
OR 43.75 LITRES
You must be thinking :Is there is any significance of keeping this size of the measuring box ?
Right ?
So  first let us see the importance of this  size.
 
The cement bag has a standard  weight of 50 Kg.
Cement has a bulk density of :1429 Kg/CuM.
Hence the  volume of 1 bag of cement shall be 
= 50/1429 =0.03499 CuM.
Since 1 CuM = 1000 Litres 
therefore, the volume of 1 bag of cement shall be 0.03499 CuM.X 1000 Litres = 34.99 Litre.
For practical purposes, we can consider this volume to be 35 Litre.
 
How do we use the measuring box for batching different grades of concrete ?
1.Let us say we want to mix a concrete of grade M20  .
We know that the Nominal mix for M20 grade  is : 1 :1.5 :3 
since we are doing volumetric mix, this means that :
If we take 
1 part of cement by volume, 
we shall have to take 1.5 parts of sand measured in the same units and 
3 parts of aggregate again measured in the same units .
 
So now , the same proportion 1 :1.5 :3 can also be written as :
1x 35 Litres : 1.5 x  35 Litres :3 x 35  Litres 
or this can be further converted into :
1 bag of cement : 1.5 measuring boxes of sand : 3 measuring boxes of coarse aggregate.
 
 
Assuming that we have to maintain a water cement ration of 0.5 ,
 we shall need 0.5 x 50 kg = 25 Kg or 25 Litres of water for one batch of concrete.
 
Now the steps are quite clear . Right ?
 
We start rotating the drum , pour about 10  Litres of water into the drum ,
Place measuring boxes of coarse aggregate in the mixer drum , 
Followed by 1.5 measuring boxes of sand , 
Add remaining water , and then finally place 1 bag of cement in the drum .
 
One batch of concrete is ready to pour after  rotating drum for about 1 to 3 minutes.
This concrete can now be transported to the actual location either through trolleys or hoist and trolleys.
 
Advantages of this method :
There is no variation in the proportioning of ingredients and hence concrete produced has a consistent quality.
 
Disadvantage : 
Local changes are not possible. 
Like if we see that the aggregates are not properly blended, little sand is usually added to the mix.
 This extra quantity of sand cannot be measured by the standard box.
USING THE BUCKETS FOR MEASURING  SAND & AGRREGATES involves first measuring capacity. in this case : 1 cement bag = 4 buckets
USING THE BUCKETS FOR MEASURING SAND & AGRREGATES involves first measuring capacity.
in this case :
1 cement bag = 4 buckets
 
2.By the buckets ( Hindi :  Ghamela ,Tagari  & Marathi :Pati,):
 
This method is followed at many sites.
 
First step in using the buckets is to know exactly how many buckets are filled up in one bag of cement ?
This check is essential since  buckets are produced in various sizes ( 12″ ,15″ and 18 ” diameter ) .
 
Suppose the buckets which we are using on the site are such that 
exactly 4 buckets are filled up with  one cement bag.
 
Now , the same proportion of 1 :1.5 :3 can be written as :
 
4 buckets of cement : 1.5 x 4  buckets of sand : 3 x 4 buckets  of aggregate
 
or ,
1 bag of cement : 6  buckets of sand : 12 buckets  of aggregate
HEAD LOAD : Aggregates being placed in the drum through buckets
HEAD LOAD :
Aggregates being placed in the drum through buckets
Now see the mixing sequence :
 
We start rotating the drum , pour about 10  Litres of water into the drum ,
Place 12 buckets of coarse aggregate in the mixer drum , 
Followed by  buckets of sand , 
Add remaining water , and then finally place 1 bag of cement in the drum .
 
 
Advantages of this method :
 
It is possible to add an extra bucket of sand in this method for achieving a dense concrete.
Shifting the sand & aggregate in buckets is easier due to light weight .
Lifting & dropping material from buckets to the drum is convenient.
 
Disadvantage : 
 
There is lot of variation in the proportioning of ingredients since each bucket can be filled up at different levels 
and hence concrete produced may not be consistent .
 
There  is always a possibility that one or two buckets are missed or added extra since individual labour carries one bucket full of material at a time.
 
Keeping a track of material actually placed in the drum is difficult for the novice on the site.
CONCRETE MIXED AND PLACED AT SITE
CONCRETE MIXED AND PLACED AT SITE

Walking  the Talk

Overview:

Who does not appreciate a well maintained house ? Similarly a properly kept construction site not only delights the prospective customers but is also highly recommended to avert accidents on site and it also promotes the effectiveness of the operating team.
This article takes you through a photo journey to get inspired from the commendable practices followed at various sites.

1.Be safe and be on the guard:

Barricades :

Excavated pits
Don’t peep into lift pits
Mystery of Open ducts 

LOOK AT THE HELMETS WORN BY THE FEMALE WORKERS. HELMET HAS A SPECIAL PROVISION TO SECURE THE BUCKET ON IT.
LOOK AT THE HELMETS WORN BY THE FEMALE WORKERS.
HELMET HAS A SPECIAL PROVISION TO SECURE THE BUCKET ON IT.

Piles bored but not cast yet ?
Water tanks

LIFT DUCTS PROPERLY SAFE GUARDED BY HONEY COMB MASONRY IN AAC BLAOCKS
LIFT DUCTS PROPERLY SAFE GUARDED BY HONEY COMB MASONRY IN AAC BLAOCKS

Safety nets on each floor
Helmets for everyone

IMG_3626
Entry restricted to authorised persons
Site enclosed all round ?

MATERIAL HOIST . BEEPING SOUND AND A FLICKERING LIGHT IS A MUST
MATERIAL HOIST .
BEEPING SOUND AND A FLICKERING LIGHT IS A MUST

Watchman at the gate ?
What about Safety shoes ?
Safety belt misplaced ?
Things thrown from upper floors ?
Passerby safe ?

SAFETY NETS ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE SLAB
SAFETY NETS ON THE PERIPHERY OF THE SLAB
Dowels for columns on terrace:

Don’t lean over Parapets

2.Keep things neat & clean:

Slippery staircase ?
Jump over Wooden scrap ?
Nail in the toe ?

3.Hygiene:
No ponds near water tank ?
Toilets on the site:
Ladies toilet ?
Gents ?

4.Electrical connections:

Cabling on wooden ballies
Electrical cable properly connected ?

5.Stability:
Braces to vertical props?
No loose ballies ?

6.Moving equipments:
alarm ?
Flickering lamp ?

MOVING VEHICLES AT SIT ALWAYS POSE SAFETY HAZARDS.
MOVING VEHICLES AT SIT ALWAYS POSE SAFETY HAZARDS.

Cranes
Dumpers

Picture3
Excavators
Hoists

UNPLANNED MOVEMENTS NEED TO BE RESTRICTED AT SITE
UNPLANNED MOVEMENTS NEED TO BE RESTRICTED AT SITE

7.Inflammable materials: Quarantined ?
Diesel
Petrol
Kerosene
Thinners
Paint material

8.Children of the workmen ?

Day care

Paid Nanny takes care of the kids
Enclosure for kids

STAIRCASES BECOME SLIPPERY DUE TO SAND & WATER. NEED TO KEEP THEM SAFE
STAIRCASES BECOME SLIPPERY DUE TO SAND & WATER.
NEED TO KEEP THEM SAFE

Throw the stone…carefully.

Overview:

In our detailing of a building we have already discussed the RCC elements in a building.

From previous post we are reviewing the masonry work.( Read: Laying bricks for building success)
This article takes the reader to the next level :Understanding Stone masonry.

LOOK AT THE OLD STONE ARCH BRIDGE
LOOK AT THE OLD STONE ARCH BRIDGE

The Stone Masonry:

Everyone likes the aesthetics and the grace of the stone walls. The sturdy facade which a stone wall creates is incomparable to any other form .Stone masonry uses the natural stones and hence may be we move forward towards the direction of the nature or may be, the stone wall reminds us of our forgotten past when we used to live inside the stone caves.

LOOK AT ANOTHER  BEAUTIFUL  STONE ARCH AND STONE MASONRY          [ CR ]USED IN A RELIGIOUS BUILDING
LOOK AT ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL STONE ARCH AND STONE MASONRY [ CR ]USED IN A RELIGIOUS BUILDING

Different styles:
There are 4 distinct methods in stone masonry depending on whether the stone [ which is also called  as Rubble]  has been dressed ( shaped) or is used as it is ( no shape given after breaking in quarry)

A.With dressed stones:
1.Ashlar masonry
2.Coursed Rubble masonry( CR)

Ashlar is more refined as compared to coursed rubble masonry. Ashlar has greater dimensional control and is more appealing from aesthetics point of view.
Both are normally used for monumental works or public buildings.

Why ashlar or coursed rubble masonry are not suitable for modern buildings ?

1.Skilled masons to dress the stone are not available.
2.Productivity is quite less.
3.Dead weight of walls is much higher

In short when cost constraints are not there , adequate time is available and most important, magnificent looks are important directly  go for Ashlar or UCR masonry.

B.With Undressed stones:

3. Un-Coursed Rubble masonry ( UCR)
4.Random rubble masonry ( RRM)

Both of these use the stone as it is. The stone are quarried and further broken in medium size from 9″ to 12″ . the joining is done in cement mortar CM ( 1:6 ).
A cross stone called as Header is provided across the wall to give a binding on the wall width .
Some times RCC precast headers can also be given. There is also a practice of keeping reinforcement bars across the width .

There is not much difference between UCR and RRM  . However, note the following:
1.UCR is better in overall appearance than RRM and hence as a convention it is used for walls above the plinth .
2.RRM is used for wall foundations or retaining walls since the looks are not important.

UN-COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY IN THE COMPOUND WALL.
UN-COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY IN THE COMPOUND WALL.
RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY USED IN THE COMPOUND WALL . [ REAR PORTION ]
RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY USED IN THE COMPOUND WALL .
[ REAR PORTION ]

Laying Bricks for building success:

Overview:

Masonry comprises of a great part in the constitution of any building. It could be a RCC framed structure or a Load bearing construction, the masonry has a special place .

This series of posts bring the topic for discussion at an introductory stage.

Types of buildings:
Before starting discussions, let us see what are the various types of structures :

1.Framed structures:

The load of slab is taken by beams which transfer load to columns and columns transfer load to the footings or piles.

So in framed structures , Walls don’t carry any load except self weight.

Main purpose of walls in a framed structure is protection of the occupants & goods against nature

( wind, sun ,dust and rains) and of course to provide protection from  theft.

The walls are therefore known as Panel walls or Partition walls.

RCC FRAMED STRUCTURE. [ Brickwork about to commence ]
RCC FRAMED STRUCTURE.
[ Brickwork about to commence ]
2.Load bearing construction:

The load of slab is taken by beams which transfer load to walls and walls  transfer load to the wall foundation or piles.

Thus purpose of walls in a load bearing is two fold:

1.To transfer load to the wall foundation or piles.
2. To protect the occupants & goods against nature ( wind, sun ,dust and rains) and to provide protection from  theft.

NEWLY ERECTED SITE OFFICE  is a LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE
NEWLY ERECTED SITE OFFICE is a LOAD BEARING STRUCTURE
Materials for masonry:

1.Red clay bricks
2.Fly ash bricks
3.Hollow concrete blocks.
4.AAC blocks: Auto-claved Aerated concrete blocks 

5.Stone masonry: 

RED CLAY BRICKS stacked at the construction site. The size of this brick is : 8" x 6" x 4"
RED CLAY BRICKS stacked at the construction site.
The size of this brick is :
8″ x 6″ x 4″
AAC BLOCKS MASONRY. [Stretcher Bond ]
AAC BLOCKS MASONRY.
[Stretcher Bond ]
AAC BLOCKS stacked at the site. AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE BLOCKS also known as CLC or Cellular Lightweight concrete
AAC BLOCKS stacked at the site.
AUTO CLAVED AERATED CONCRETE BLOCKS also known as CLC or Cellular Lightweight concrete

Joining materials:
1.Lime mortar:
2.Cement mortar:
3.Chemicals :

TRAY FOR MIXING CEMENT MORTAR at the location of brickwork
TRAY FOR MIXING CEMENT MORTAR at the location of brickwork
LOOK AT THE AAC BLOCKS MASONRY  IN  high rise building
LOOK AT THE AAC BLOCKS MASONRY IN high rise building

Author’s note :

In subsequent posts , we shall review the following :

1. Need for breaking the joints

2.What is a ” frog ” and what is the purpose ?

3.What is the checklist for taking up brickwork ?

4.What is Raking ?

5.What are the advantages of a AAC masonry over conventional Brick work ?

6. What is a bond ?

7.What are the different types of bonds in use ?

8.What is a Stretcher ?

9.What is a Header ?

10. What are the quality checks for bricks ?

11.What are the quality checks for workmanship in masonry ?

We shall explore through all these issues one by one giving full focus to individual issue.

Till then ,

Good bye

Happy Reading

 IMG_3626

Yeah..the Slab is finally cast

Overview:
In this series  we are looking at the various stages in the construction of a building.
So far we have covered from land acquisition up to mobilization and from mass excavation up to columns of the first floor.
This article brings you the intricacies and steps in casting the roof slab.

For the purpose of clarity, the tasks have been grouped under:

A. Pre-concreting care:
B. During concreting care:
C. Post -concreting care:

All the Activities ,however, have been sequenced in a continuous serial nos from 1 to 47.

The activities sequence:

A.Pre-concreting care:

Columns:
1.Columns up to beam bottom
2.Curing of columns
3.marking of beam bottom on columns
4.fixing of runner blocks on columns

Beam bottoms & sides:
5.Fixing of beam bottom
6.Supports below beam bottom
7.Inside face of beam: side fixing

Slab centering:
8.Slab centering in plates
9.Gaps fixing with planks & closing of gaps qith iron strips or masking tape.
10.Fixing of Accrow spans
11.Levelling of centering plates
12.Keeping camber in the slab

Reinforcement laying:
13.laying of beam reinf.
14.Laying of slab reinf.
15.placing chairs below bent up bars

Electrical conduits/ fixtures:
16.Laying electrical conduits/ fan hooks/ down pipes from beams

Sunk portion:
17.Keeping pipe sleeve in the sunk portion for drainage pipe

Securing:
18.Placing cover blocks for beams & slabs
19. Fixing clamps for beams
20.Fixing tie bars in sleeves for deep beams

Joint inspection:
21.Steel measurement and checking
( jointly with clients engineer)
22.Laps counting
23.Extra bars counting

Arrangement for casting:
24.Installing the concrete pump
25.Fixing the pipes for concrete
26.scheduling the transit mixer ( TM)
27.Final checking by consultant
28.pour card approval

B. Care during concreting :

29.Placing concrete
30.Compaction by needle vibrator
31.levelling
32.slab thickness verification
33.finishing
34.Removing excess debris from slab

C.Post concreting care:

35.casting of specimen cubes
36.providing mortar bunds for curing
37.ponding with water
38.striking off beam sides
39. striking off slab centering
40. striking off beam bottom
41.Hacking the concrete surface
42.Sunk portions cleaning
43.waterproofing
44.ponding with water
45.Testing of cubes on 7th & 28th days
46.Reconciliation of materials
47.Bills

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SANTOSH KULKARNI

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